The ev3dev Linux distribution got an update this month. The distribution targets the Lego EV3 which is a CPU Lego provides to drive their Mindstorm robots. The new release includes the most recent kernel and updates from Debian 8.8. It also contains tools needed for some Wi-Fi dongles and other updates.
If you haven’t seen ev3dev before, it is quite simply Linux that boots on the EV3 hardware using an SD card. You don’t have to reflash the computer and if you want to return to stock, just take out the SD card. You can also use ev3dev on a Raspberry Pi or BeagleBone, if you like. There’s a driver framework included for handling sensors, motors, and other items using the file system.
Having a full Linux setup on the EV3 lets you program in Java or Python or any of the other tools you might like from a Linux computer. The video below from [Juan Antonio Breña Moral] is one of several he’s posted using Java, for example.