Why Buffer? Because buffers cut you some slack.
Inevitably, in our recent series on microcontroller interrupts, the question of how to deal with actual serial data came up. In those examples, we were passing one byte at a time between the interrupt service routine (ISR) and the main body of code. That works great as long as the main routine can handle the incoming data in time but, as many people noted in the comments, if the main routine takes too long the single byte can get overwritten by a new one.
The solution? Make some storage room for multiple bytes so that they can stack up until you have time to process them. And if you couple this storage space with some simple rules for reading and writing, you’ve got yourself a buffer.
So read on to see how to implement a simple, straightforward circular buffer in C for microcontrollers (or heck, for anything). Buffers are such a handy tool to have in your programming toolkit that you owe it to yourself to get familiar with them if you’re not already.