Reading from a large number of inputs, like this piano keyboard, can be tedious. Even when multiplexing there’s a lot to keep track of. But if you choose the right microcontroller, you may have hardware assistance. Here’s an ATmega640 is using it’s external memory interface to read the key matrix.
You may remember the Open Music Labs article about reading from a shift register using just one pin of a microcontroller. This time around a shift register is still used, but instead of pulling in a long line of parallel inputs, the switches are multiplexed to reduce the number of I/O pins used to read them.
A 74HC573 is used to facilitate the multiplexing. We won’t go into how that part is accomplished; there’s a separate post that explains the process. What’s unique here is that the XMEM peripheral of the AVR microcontroller is used to grab the data. This is intended for external memory chips, but if you get the timing just right, it greatly simplifies reading in a matrix of up to 128 inputs.