Mathematical transforms can be a great help in understanding signals. Imaging trying to look at a complex waveform and figuring out the frequency components without the Fourier transform. [Artem Kirsanov] calls the wavelet transform a “mathematical microscope” and his video gives you a great introduction to the topic. You can see the video below.
The video starts with a discussion about how the time domain and frequency domain have a dual relationship — not big news if you’ve dealt with Fourier transforms and — in fact — that’s the next topic in the video. However, there are limitations to the transformation — you lose time domain information in the process.