Every AVR microcontroller, from the ATtiny in your thermostat to the ATMega in your Arduino, stores its configuration in a series of fuse bits. These fuse bits control settings such as the multiplier of the internal oscillator (and thus the speed of the chip), or if the reset pin can be used as a GPIO pin. [YS] just put up an awesome tutorial for understanding these fuse/lock bits, and it’s just the reference guide you’ll need when you find your AVR is running 8 times slower than you would like.
As an example, [YS] uses the ATMega48 default settings. From the factory, the ‘Mega48 ships with it’s fuse bits set to use an 8MHz internal RC oscillator with the CKDIV8 bit set. This results in the chip operating at 1MHz, a bit slow for [YS]’ liking.
By looking at the datasheet for the ATMega48, [YS] found the CKDIV8 fuse was the 7th bit in the low fuse byte. From the factory, the default value for this byte is 0b01100010. To remove the ‘divide clock by 8’ bit, [YS] needed to change the low byte to 0b11100010, or 0xE2. This is done via AVRdude by appending lfuse:w:0xE2:m to the commands entered when programming.
Fuse bits don’t need to be scary. As long as you can convert between binary and hex, can remember there are 7 bits in a byte (remember to start counting from 0), and have access to an easy to use fuse calculator, it’s possible to change all the settings on any AVR you have on hand.