Chromebook Trades Camera for WiFi Freedom

There are a number of companies now providing turn-key computers that meet the Free Software Foundation’s criteria for their “Respects Your Freedom” certification. This means, in a general sense, that the computer is guaranteed not to spy on you or otherwise do anything else you didn’t explicitly ask it to. Unfortunately these machines often have a hefty premium tacked on, making it an unpleasant decision between privacy and performance.

Freedom-loving hacker [SolidHal] writes in to tell us about his quest to create a FSF-compliant laptop without breaking the bank. Based on a cheap Asus C201 Chromebook, his custom machine checks off all the appropriate boxes. The operating system was easy enough with an install of Debian, and the bootloader was rid of any Intel Management Engine shenanigans with a healthy dose of Libreboot. But there was one problem: the permanently installed WiFi hardware that required proprietary firmware. To remedy the issue, he decided to install an internal USB Wi-Fi adapter that has the FSF seal of approval.

As the Chromebook obviously doesn’t have an internal USB port, this was easier said than done. But as [SolidHal] is not the kind of guy who would want his laptop taking pictures of him in the first place, he had the idea to take the internal USB connection used by the integrated webcam and use that. He pulled the webcam out, studied the wiring, and determined which wires corresponded to the normal USB pinout.

The FSF approved ThinkPenguin Wi-Fi adapter he chose is exceptionally small, so it was easy enough to tuck it inside some empty space inside of the Chromebook. [SolidHal] just needed to solder it to the old webcam connection, and wrap it up in Kapton tape to prevent any possible shorts. The signal probably isn’t great considering the antenna is stuck inside the machine with all the noisy components, but it’s a trade-off for having a fully free and open source driver. But as already established, sometimes these are the kind of tough choices you have to make when walking in the righteous footsteps of Saint Ignucius.

Internal laptop modifications like this one remind us of the Ye Olden Days of Hackaday, when Eee PC modifications were all the rage and we still ran black and white pictures “taped” to the screen. Ah, the memories.

30 thoughts on “Chromebook Trades Camera for WiFi Freedom

  1. And about the antenna : couldn´t find in the pictures, but didn´t the original machine already have antennas ? They usually go to the sides/backside of the display and connect to the mainboard, so would be just a matter of connecting them to the newly added wireless card ? No need to suffer being near the “noisy components”.

    1. Sure the laptop likely has antennas somewhere, but the Wifi adapter doesn’t have a way to connect it to them. Suppose you could try and solder the antenna lead to the microscopic PCB antenna on the adapter, but you’d need a real steady hand.

      Easier to just take the hit in signal strength. At least you know you won’t destroy anything.

      1. Well, couldn´t find a good picture of the wifi adapter. But if he soldered the cables from the usb connector of the camera, soldering the two wires from an antenna cable would be easy. And the cables should already be around. because they need to reach the mainboard to connect to the onboard wifi.

    2. From the pictures it seems like the adapter could be fitted on top of the screen with some digging, cutting the usb connector and removing the camera entierely. It would allow a much better range.. after passing through the motherboard the signal coming from the right must be very weak

      1. Unfortunately the usb connector is part of the main pcb and has components on the other side! So cutting it off wasn’t really on option. In addition, the antennas are rather bulky folded pieces of metal, which end up making the pcb thicker than the lcd, etc, so fitting it up there wouldn’t work. If I have issues, I’ll solder the antennas left over to the pcb which should do the trick.

    3. The laptop does have two antenna cables already. The problem is the usb dongle uses two folded pieces of steel as the antennas, so no good way of attaching them. I figured I’d test out without the antennas and see how it works. It I notice issues I’ll solder them on and make an update to the writeup.

  2. Hmm it is certainly a polarizing topic. Personally, I just go with the assumption that they already have my data several times over by now anyway and are much more likely to steal it from a company’s servers that provide services I use than hitting my personal devices.
    Really, it seems the best thing to do is ruin your credit so no one else can get anything monetary using your info lol.

  3. This is far more ambitious than my method of simply putting a strip of black electrical tape over the built-in camera of my laptop, and leaving the webcam unplugged from the USB ports on my desktop. Well done!
    I will have to look into Libreboot. It’s not something I had heard of before (I don’t pay a lot of attention to computer news these days) and it sounds like it might be useful.

    1. There are many. Ath9K pci-e chips have no on board CPU, so there is no blob to load in them. The USB version has a CPU, but the firmware for it is open source (though badly written). You can buy cards with this chip on aliexpress for a few $: https://www.aliexpress.com/wholesale?SearchText=ar9271

      Ralink (now Mediatek) also has some wifi chips without firmware, although the USB version does need a trivial 8051 blob that handles packet transport over USB. It seems to be possible to have the chip download this image from external EEPROM instead of from the host, allowing you to make a FSF ‘Respects your freedom’ compliant dongle, although of course the same proprietary code is running. I never saw a dongle that used the chip in this way, so maybe it does not work in practice or there is no market demand.

  4. “and the bootloader was rid of any Intel Management Engine shenanigans with a healthy dose of Libreboot” Since it uses an ARM CPU (RK3288), I think that is a safe, but misleading, statement to make.

    But it will still be Vulnerable to Spectre 1 & Spectre 2.

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