# Transforming Spice

Spice is a circuit simulator that you should have in your toolbox. While a simulator can’t tell you everything, it will often give you valuable insight into the way your circuit behaves, before you’ve even built it. In the first installment of this three-part series, I looked at LTSpice and did a quick video walkthrough of a DC circuit. In the second, I examined two other parts of Spice: parameter sweeps and AC circuits. In this final installment, I want to talk a bit more about real-world component performance and also look at modeling transformers.

## Recap

Last time we looked at a low pass filter, but it wasn’t practical because the components were too perfect. Only in simulation do voltage sources and wires have zero resistance. There was no load resistance either, which is unlikely. Even an oscilloscope probe will load the circuit a little.

The resulting AC analysis showed a nice filter response that was flat to about 1 kHz and then started roll off as the frequency increased. Suppose the source had an 8 ohm series resistor. How does that change the circuit response?

# Spice Power

Spice is a circuit simulator that you should have in your toolbox. While a simulator can’t tell you everything, it will often give you valuable insight into the way your circuit behaves, before you’ve even built it. In the first installment of this three-part series, I looked at LTSpice and did a quick video walkthrough of a DC circuit. This time, I want to examine two other parts of Spice: parameter sweeps and AC circuits. So let’s get to it.

In the first installment, I left you with a cliffhanger. Namely the question of maximum power transfer using this simple circuit. If you run the `.op` simulation you’ll get this result:

```--- Operating Point ---
V(n001): 5 voltage
I(R1): 0.1 device_current
I(V1): -0.1 device_current```

The power in `R1` (voltage times current) is .5 W or 500 mW if you prefer. You probably know that the maximum power in a load occurs when the load resistor is the same as the source resistance. The `Rser` parameter sets the voltage source’s internal resistance. You could also have created a new resistor in series with `V1` and set it explicitly.