Sometimes less is more. This is especially true when dealing with microcontrollers with limited I/O pins. Even if you have lots of I/O, sometimes you are need to pack a lot into a little space. [Hugatry] was inspired by the simple interface found on a lot of flashlights: one button. Push it and it turns on. Push it again, and it switches modes. You cycle through the modes until you finally turn it back off. One button provides mutliple functions. The question is how can you use a power switch as an I/O device? After all, when you turn the power off, the microprocessor stops operating, right?
[Hugatry’s] answer is quite simple. He connects a resistor/capacitor network to an I/O pin (or multiple pins). When the processor turns on initially, the pin will read low and the capacitor will charge up. If you turn the power off, the CPU voltage will fall rapidly to zero, but the voltage on the capacitor will discharge slower. If you wait long enough and turn the power on, there’s no difference from that first power on event. But if you turn the power on quickly, the capacitor voltage will still be high enough to read as a logic one.
What that means is that the processor as part of its start up can detect that it was recently turned off and take some action. If it remembers the previous state in nonvolatile memory, you can have the code cycle through multiple states, just like a flashlight. You can see a video of the setup, below.
[Hugatry] included some simple Arduino code that illustrates the concept. However, the technique is simple enough that you can adapt it to other projects easily.