Fred is a new design that reuses the parts that made up ENA. It has an 8-bit CPU, 16 bytes of RAM, 256 bytes of NVRAM, and runs at a clock speed of 11.3 kHz. With its 560 tubes drawing a total supply current of about 200 A it also provides a fair bit of heating to [Mike]’s study. The main logic is implemented through NOR gates, built from 6N3P dual-triode tubes sourced from Eastern Europe. These NOR gates are combined into more complex structures like latches, registers and even a complete ALU. A total of sixteen machine code instructions can be used to write programs; clever design allows Fred to perform 16, 32 or even 64-bit calculations with its 8-bit ALU.
An interesting addition is a new RAM design based on reed relays. [Mike] realised that relays are actually very similar to digital transmission gates and can therefore be used to make a simple static RAM cell. If you thought relays were too slow for RAM cells, think again: these reed relays can toggle at a mind-boggling 700 Hz, making them more than fast enough for Fred.
The main I/O device is a console that contains several pushbuttons as well as a 12 x 8 LED display. All of this makes Fred a fully-functional general-purpose computer that’s even capable of playing Pong (video, embedded below). [Mike]’s website is full of interesting detail on all aspects of vacuum tube computer design, and makes delightful reading for anyone tempted by the idea of building their own.
When we talk about a “computer” today, we generally picture an electronic machine that can perform various kinds of mathematical operations, manage its program flow, move data from one place to another, and string all these functions together to perform some useful task. But once upon a time there were machines that could perform only a subset of these functions; these might be classified somewhere between computers and calculators.
One such machine was the Elektronensaldierer ES 24, built in 1955 by German computer pioneer Heinz Nixdorf. Its name translates as “electronic balancer”, with “balance” in the accounting sense meaning the difference of assets and liabilities. Designed to interface with a punch card machine from French manufacturer Bull, it contained several hundred vacuum tubes and could be used to add and subtract numbers stored on those punch cards.
[Henry Westphal] decided to make a modern copy of the ES 24 (translated), based on Nixdorf’s original schematics, for display in the HNF computer museum in Paderborn. The result is a huge display containing 204 tubes as well as a massive power supply. Like the 1955 original it can add incoming numbers and output the result as a twelve-digit decimal number. To make its inner workings visible, [Henry] also added a status light to each tube, showing whether it is storing a “0” or a “1”. This makes for a beautiful Blinkenlights display that shows the bits moving through the machine’s inner circuits.
Culminating a year-long project, [Usagi Electric] aka [David] has just wrapped up his single-bit vacuum tube computer. It is based on the Motorola MC14500 1-bit industrial controller, but since [David] changed the basic logic unit into an arithmetic-logic unit, he’s dubbing it the UE14500. Built on a wooden panel about 2.5 x 3 rabbit lengths excluding power supply. [David] admits he has cheated a little bit, in that he’s using two silicon diodes instead of a 6AL5 dual diode tube in his universal NOR gate on which the computer is based — but in his defense he notes that plenty of vacuum tube computers of the era used silicon diodes.
The tube he uses in the NOR gates is the 6AU6 miniature pentode, which he selected because of its availability, price, and suitability for low voltage. [David] runs this computer with two power supplies of +24 and -12 VDC, rather than the hundreds of volts typically used in vacuum tube designs. The modules are constructed on single-sided copper-clad PCB panels etched using a milling machine. The video below the break wraps up the 22-part series, where he fixes a few power supply issues and builds a remote front panel for I/O, and gives a demo of the computer in operation. Alas, this only completes one fourth of the project, as there are three more building blocks to build before the whole system is complete — Program Control (magnetic tape), RAM Memory bank, and a serial input/output module. We look forward to seeing the whole system up and running in the future.