For anyone who has dealt with the programming language Forth, odds are good that you picked it up back in the 80s. Since the language is still in use for many applications, though, you might not have this sort of nostalgic feeling for the language that some might have. For that, though, you might want to try out [Richard]’s implementation which simulates the microcomputers of the 80s using this unique language.
The system has an FPGA-based CPU written in Verilog. It runs on a Nexys-3 board and features PS/2 Keyboard input, a VGA output with a VHDL VT100 terminal emulation module, access to the Flash and onboard SRAM, and a UART. With all of that put together it’s virtually a Forth-based time machine. It’s also extremely well documented even if you’re just curious how it works and aren’t planning on building your own.
The project also includes a CPU simulator written in C which can model the entire computer if you don’t have the hardware for building the actual computer. [Richard] also released everything that you’d need to roll out your own Forth computer on the GitHub page. There are other ways of heading way back to the 1980s, though, like using the quirky Parralax Propeller.
For want of a better use of a spare Raspberry Pi Zero W and a set of LogitechZ-680 surround sound speakers, [Andre van Kammen] hacked them together to make them stream music playing from his phone.
It was stumbling across the Pi Music Box distribution that really got the ball rolling, and the purchase of a pHAT DAC laid the foundation. Cracking open the speakers’ controller case, [Kammen] was able to get 5V of power off some terminals even when the speakers were on standby — awesome! — which the Pi could use. Power and volume are controlled via the Pi’s GPIO pins with a diode to drop the voltage and prevent shorts.
Now, how to tell whether the speakers are on or off? Well, a pin on the display connector changes to 4.3V when it’s on, so wiring a 10k resistor and a diode to said pin is a hackable solution. Finishing off the wired connections, it proved possible to cram the pHAT DAC inside the controller case with the GPIO header sticking out the back to mount the Pi upon with no other external wires — double awesome!
Continue reading “Remote Controlled Streaming Speakers”
C++ has been quickly modernizing itself over the last few years. Starting with the introduction of C++11, the language has made a huge step forward and things have changed under the hood. To the average Arduino user, some of this is irrelevant, maybe most of it, but the language still gives us some nice features that we can take advantage of as we program our microcontrollers.
Modern C++ allows us to write cleaner, more concise code, and make the code we write more reusable. The following are some techniques using new features of C++ that don’t add memory overhead, reduce speed, or increase size because they’re all handled by the compiler. Using these features of the language you no longer have to worry about specifying a 16-bit variable, calling the wrong function with NULL, or peppering your constructors with initializations. The old ways are still available and you can still use them, but at the very least, after reading this you’ll be more aware of the newer features as we start to see them roll out in Arduino code.
Continue reading “Using Modern C++ Techniques with Arduino”
Programming an FPGA with Verilog looks a lot like programming. But it isn’t, at least not in the traditional sense. There have been several systems that aim to take C code and convert it into a hardware description language. One of these, cynth, is simple to use and available on GitHub. You will need to install scala and a build system called sbt, if you want to try it.
There are limitations, of course. If you want a preprocessor, you’ll have to run it separately. You can’t use global variables, multiplication, floats, and many other pieces of C. The compiler generates a Verilog file for each C function.
Continue reading “FPGAs in C with Cynth”
[Michael Becker] has been using FreeRTOS for about seven years. He decided to start adding some features and has a very interesting C++ class wrapper for the OS available.
Real Time Operating Systems (RTOS) add functionality for single-thread microcontrollers to run multiple programs at the same time without threatening the firmware developer’s sanity. This project adds C++ to the rest of the FreeRTOS benefits. We know that people have strong feelings one way or the other about using C++ in embedded systems. However, as the 24 demo projects illustrate, it is possible.
One nice thing about the library is that it is carefully documented. A large number of examples don’t hurt either. The library is clean with just under 30 classes. It seems to have resisted the trend of having classes for everything. You know the kind of library we mean. To create an Integer object, just build a configuration object to pass to the class factory generator which…. This library doesn’t entertain any of that. It has simple abstractions around threads and timers, queues, and mutexes.
Continue reading “FreeRTOS Gets Class”
When you take a microcontroller class in university, one of the early labs they have you drudge through on your way to, promised, mastery over all things embedded, is a tiny music generator.
It’s a more challenging lab than one would expect. It takes understanding the clock of the microcontroller and its sometimes temperamental nature. It takes a clear mental picture of interrupts, and is likely one of the first experiences a burgeoning designer will have worrying about the execution time of one of their loops. Also tables, data structures, and more. It even requires them to go out of their comfort zone a learn about an unrelated field, a challenge often faced in practicing engineering.
Luckily [Łukasz Podkalicki] has done a great job of documenting the adventure. He’s got everything from the schematic and code to the PWM traces on the oscilloscope.
It’s also worth mentioning that he’s got a few other really nice tutorials for the ATtiny13 microcontroller on his blog. A tiny party light generator and a IR receiver among them.
I’ve had the fortune or misfortune of interviewing a lot of job candidates over the years. It amazes me how often someone will claim to know something, sound reasonable, but then if you quiz them on it, it becomes really obvious that they don’t know much. To flush this out, we had a three-question test that would tell you a lot. People who got the right answer were ahead of the game, of course, but even looking at how people approached the answer (right or wrong) would tell you a lot, too.
I remember one case where the answer involved casting a value. A candidate had impressed me until faced with the question to which he said (more or less): “Well, there’s this function. I think it is called ‘cast’…” I think the look on my face told him that I actually knew the answer (not surprising, since I was giving the test) and that wasn’t it.
[Oleksandr Kaleniuk] has a C quiz of only five simple questions. They reminded me of at least one of my old company’s three-question quiz. I don’t want to say too much about the character of the test because I don’t want to give away the answers, but if you think you are a C wizard, go check it out. Then come back in the comments and tell us how you did. Just try to avoid posting spoilers (although you should probably avoid the comment section until you come back).
Continue reading “Think You Know C? Find Out”