# Learn Flip Flops With (More) Simulation

In the previous installment, we talked about why flip flops are such an important part of digital design. We also looked at some latch circuits. This time, I want to look at some actual flip flops–that is circuit elements that hold their state based on some clock signal.

Just like last time, I want to look at sequential building blocks in three different ways: at the abstraction level, at the gate level, and then using Verilog and two online tools that you can also use to simulate the circuits. Remember the SR latch? It takes two inputs, one to set the Q output and the other to reset it. This unassuming building block is at the heart of many other logic circuits.

A common enhancement to the SR latch is to include an enable signal. This precludes the output from changing when the enable signal is not asserted. The implementation is simple. You only need to put an additional gate on each input so that the output of the gate can’t assert unless the other input (the enable) is asserted. The schematic appears on the right.

In the case of this simulation (or the Verilog equivalent), the SR inputs become active high because of the inversion in the input NAND gates. If the enable input is low, nothing will change. If it is high, then asserted inputs on the S or R inputs will cause the latch to set or reset. Don’t set both high at the same time when the enable is high (or, go ahead–it is a simulation, so you can’t burn anything up).(Note: If you can’t see the entire circuit or you see nothing in the circuit simulator, try selecting Edit | Centre Circuit from the main menu.)

# Learn Flip Flops With Simulation

Digital design with combinatorial gates like AND, OR, and NOT gates is relatively straightforward. In particular, when you use these gates to form combinatorial logic, the outputs only depend on the inputs. The previous state of the outputs isn’t important in combinatorial logic. While this is simple, it also prevents you from building things like state machines, counters, and even CPUs.

Circuits that use their own outputs as inputs are known as sequential circuits. It is true that at the fundamental level, sequential circuits use conventional logic gates. However, you usually won’t deal with them as gates, but will deal with abstractions like latches, flip flops, and even higher level constructs. Learning about these higher level constructs will allow you to make more advanced digital designs that are robust. In fact, if you are using an FPGA, building blocks like flip flops are essential since a large portion of the chip will be made up of some kind of flip flop.

# How CMOS Works: MOSFETs, JFETs, IGFETS And More

CMOS opened the door for many if not most of the properties needed for today’s highly integrated circuits and low power portable and mobile devices. This really couldn’t happen until the speeds and current drive capabilities of CMOS caught up to the other technologies, but catch up they did.

Nowadays CMOS Small Scale Integration (SSI) logic families, I.E. the gates used in external logic, offer very fast speeds and high current drive capability as well as supporting the low voltages found in modern designs. Likewise the Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) designs, or Very Very Large Scale if you like counting the letter V when talking, are possible due to low power dissipation as well as other factors.