Moore’s law isn’t strictly holding anymore, but it is still true that most computing systems are at least trending towards lower cost over time, if not also slightly smaller size. This means wider access to less expensive hardware, even if that hardware is still an 8-bit microcontroller. While some move on to more powerful platforms as a result of this trend, there are others still fighting to push these platforms to the edge. [lcamtuf] has been working to this end, stretching a small AVR microcontroller to not only play a classic video game, but to display it on a color display. Continue reading “Pushing Crates In 8-bit Color”
The declining costs of single-board computers has made serious computing power available for even the most trivial of tasks. It’s easy enough to slap a Raspberry Pi onto almost anything for nearly the same cost as a powerful 32-bit microcontroller platform, but this takes some of the fun out of projects for a few of us. Looking to get into the weeds can be a challenge as well, as [Michal Zalewski] demonstrates in this audio playback device he built from a simple 8-bit microcontroller.
The small toy takes audio input from a microphone through an op-amp and feeds this signal to an ADC within the AVR128DA28 microcontroller. The data is then stored on a separate memory chip ready to be played back through another op-amp paired with a speaker. This is where being familiar with the inner workings of the microcontroller comes in handy. By manipulating the interrupt routines in specific ways, the audio stored in memory can be played back at various speeds.
[Michal] intended this build to be a toy for one of his younger relatives, and for the price of a few ICs and buttons it does a pretty good job of turning a regular voice into a chipmunk voice like some commercial children’s toys some of us might remember. If the design aesthetics of this gadget look familiar, you may be thinking of his minimalist gaming device which we recently featured.
What a time to be alive when you can find inexpensive microcontrollers that come with programmable(ish) logic that can operate independently of the system clock. [David Johnson-Davies] recently built a proof of concept using the Configurable Custom Logic (CCL) that is available in some of the newer AVR microcontroller designs. It’s a simple implementation, a set of frequency dividers that blink three LEDs with up to a 90 MHz input signal. But the simplicity is the reason to love his write-up — you can wrap your head around it right away.
There are four lookup table (LUTs) used to form the frequency divider. Think of these like a NAND or XOR gate, but you get to decide how the output truth tables will perform. The output is fed into a sequencer which can be configured as a D/JK flip-flop or a D/RS latch, plus you can specify the signal edge, and of course define the clock source. An interesting trick here is to hold the G input of both D flip-flops high by feeding them LUTs set to all ones. Note that the output of the first divider (PA3) is feeding the external input (PD2) of the second divider.
While the CCL is configured using the C code you flash to the microcontroller, it’s a hardware peripheral capable of operating independent of the chip’s system clock. The AVR128DA28 that’s used here tops out at 24 MHz (double that if you use the PLL) but [David] got reliable results from his clock divider feeding a signal as high as 90 MHz to the input pin. Of course you have the option of feeding internal clock signals to the CCL, but that wouldn’t seem nearly as interesting here. For the demo, [David] is actually toggling an IO pin which is connected to PA2 as the external input for the logic. Make sure you click through to his write-up linked above as he does an excellent job of walking through the sample code (just a couple-dozen lines to set this all up). Here’s the datasheet for this chip (PDF, page 447 for pertinent registers) and for a deeper dive the appnote on CCL (PDF).
So what is this all good for? We already saw an answer to that question back in January when [SM6VFZ] used the CCL peripheral to build a software-defined switch-mode converter. How awesome is that?