Automatic I2C Address Allocation For Daisy-Chained Sensors

Many readers will be familiar with interfacing I2C peripherals. A serial line joins a string of individual I2C devices, and each of the devices has its own address on that line. In most cases when connecting a single device or multiple different ones there is no problem in ensuring that they have different addresses.

What happens though when multiple identical devices share an I2C bus? This was the problem facing [Sam Evans] at Mindtribe, and his solution is both elegant and simple. The temperature sensors he was using across multiple identical boards have three pins upon which can be set a binary address, and his challenge was to differentiate between them without the manufacturing overhead of a set of DIP switches, jumpers, or individual pull-up resistors. Through a clever combination of sense lines between the boards he was able to create a system in which the address would be set depending upon whether the board had a neighbour on one side, the other, or both. A particularly clever hack allows two side-by-side boards that have two neighbours to alternate their least significant bit, allowing four identical boards each with two sensors to be daisy-chained for a total of eight sensors with automatic address allocation.

We aren’t told what the product was in this case, however it’s irrelevant. This is a hardware hack in its purest sense, one of those which readers will take note of and remember when it is their turn to deal with a well-populated I2C bus. Of course, if this method doesn’t appeal, you can always try an LTC4316.