Accurate Cycle Counting On RP2040 MicroPython

The RP2040 is a gorgeous little chip with a well-defined datasheet and a fantastic price tag. Two SDKs are even offered: one based on C and the other MicroPython. More experienced MCU wranglers will likely reach for the C variant, but Python does bring a certain speed when banging out a quick project or proof of concept. Perhaps that’s why [Jeremy Bentham] ported his RP2040-based vehicle speedometer to MicroPython.

The two things that make that difficult are that MicroPython tries to be pretty generic, which means some hackery is needed to talk to the low-level hardware, and that MicroPython doesn’t have a reputation for accurate cycle counting. In this case, the low-level hardware is the PWM peripheral. He details the underlying mechanism in more detail in the C version. On the RP2040, the PWM module can count pulse edges on an input. However, you must start and stop it accurately to calculate the amount of time captured. From there, it’s just edges divided by time. For this, the DMA system is pulled in. A DMA request can be triggered once the PWM counter rolls over. The other PWM channel acts as a timer, and when the timer expires, the DMA request turns off the counter. This works great for fast signals but is inaccurate for slow signals (below 1kHz). So, a reciprocal or time-interval system is included, where the time between edges is captured instead of counting the number of edges in a period,

What’s interesting here is how the hardware details are wrapped neatly into The uctypes module from MicroPython allows access to MMIO devices such as DMA and PWM. The code is available on GitHub. Of course, [Jeremy] is no stranger to hacking around on the RP2040, as he has previously rolled his own WiFi driver for the Pico W.

The Past, Present, And Future Of CircuitPython

Modern microcontrollers like the RP2040 and ESP32 are truly a marvels of engineering. For literal pocket change you can get a chip that’s got a multi-core processor running at hundreds of megahertz, plenty of RAM, and more often than not, some form of wireless connectivity. Their capabilities have been nothing short of revolutionary for the DIY crowd — on any given day, you can see projects on these pages which simply wouldn’t have been possible back when the 8-bit Arduino was all most folks had access to.

Limor Fried

Thanks to the increased performance of these MCUs, hackers and makers now even have a choice as to which programming language they want to use. While C is still the language of choice for processor-intensive tasks, for many applications, Python is now a viable option on a wide range of hardware.

This provides a far less intimidating experience for newcomers, not just because the language is more forgiving, but because it does away with the traditional compile-flash-pray workflow. Of course, that doesn’t mean the more experienced MCU wranglers aren’t invited to the party; they might just have to broaden their horizons a bit.

To learn more about this interesting paradigm shift, we invited the fine folks at Adafruit to the Hack Chat so the community could get a chance to ask questions about CircuitPython, their in-house Python variant which today runs on more than 400 devices.

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Software Driving Hardware

We were talking about [Christopher Barnatt]’s very insightful analysis of what the future holds for the Raspberry Pi single board computers on the Podcast. On the one hand, they’re becoming such competent computers that they are beginning to compete with lightweight desktop machines, instead of just being a hacker curiosity.

On the other hand, especially given the shortage and the increase in price that has come with the Pi’s expanding memory endowments, a lot of people who would “just throw in a Raspberry Pi” are starting to think more carefully about their options. Five years ago, this would have meant looking into what you could whip together on an Arduino-based platform, either on actual Arduino hardware or on an ESP8266 or similar, but that’s a very different beast from a programmer’s perspective. Working with microcontrollers used to be very different from working with even the smallest Linux machines.

These days, there is no shortage of microcontrollers that have enough memory – both flash and RAM – to support a higher-level environment like MicroPython. And if you think about it, MicroPython brings to the microcontrollers a lot of what people were using a Raspberry Pi for in projects anyway: a friendly interactive programming environment that was free of the compile-here, flash-there debug cycle. If you’re happy coding Python on a single-board Linux computer, you’ll be more or less happy coding in MicroPython or Circuit Python on a microcontroller.

And what this leaves us with, as hackers, is a fantastic spectrum of choices. Where before there was a hard edge between programming C on an 8-bit PIC or an AVR and working with something that had a full Linux operating system like a Pi, it’s all blurry now. And as the Pis, the Jetson, and all the other Linux SBCs are blurring the boundary with more traditional computers as they all become more competent and gain more computer-like peripherals. Nowadays your choice is much freer, and the hardware landscape more fluid. You don’t have to let software development concerns drive your hardware choices, and we think that’s a great thing.

Let Machine Learning Code An Infinite Variety Of Pong Games

In a very real way, Pong started the video game revolution. You wouldn’t have thought so at the time, with its simple gameplay, rudimentary controls, some very low-end sounds, and a cannibalized TV for a display, but the legendarily stuffed coinboxes tell the tale. Fast forward 50 years or so, and Pong has been largely reduced to a programmer’s exercise to see how few lines of code can stand in for what [Ted Dabney] and [Allan Alcorn] accomplished. But now even that’s too much, as OpenAI Codex can generate a playable Pong from just a few prompts, at least most of the time. Continue reading “Let Machine Learning Code An Infinite Variety Of Pong Games”

MicroPython ESP32 IDE Makes Life Simpler

In theory, using MicroPython on the ESP32 is easy —  just flash an image and connect using a serial port. But that leaves a lot of things you still have to do. You need to move files between the two platforms. You’ll want to manage network configurations. You might want better editing and assistance, too. So there are a number of IDEs made to help you and one we recently noticed was MPY-Jama.

The IDE provides source code editing, of course. But it also allows you to do things like pull information about the network using a dashboard or connect to a WiFi network easily. You can even create your own AP with a simple interface.

Although the front part of the README mentions it is for Windows or Mac, if you scroll down you’ll find instructions for installing under Linux. The IDE is extensible using “Jama Funcs” and can handle the flashing operation from inside the IDE.

Of course, there is an IDE from Arduino (but not the Arduino IDE) that handles MicroPython. You can also find a rundown of several similar alternatives online.  If you need some inspiration for a MicroPython project, perhaps you’d like to play a game?

GitHub ESP32 OTA Updates, Now In MicroPython Flavor

Wouldn’t it be great if you could keep all of your small Internet-connected hacks up to date with a single codebase? A couple of weeks ago, we wrote up a project that automagically pulls down OTA updates to an ESP32 from GitHub, using the ESP32 C SDK. [Pascal] asked in the comments, “but what about MicroPython?” Gauntlet thrown, [TURFPTAx] wrote ugit.pya simple library that mirrors all of the code from a public GitHub Python repo straight to your gizmo running Micropython.

[Damped] wrote in about Senko, another library that does something very similar, but by then [TURFPTAx] was already done. Bam! Part of the speed is that MicroPython includes everything you need to get the job done – parsing streamed JSON was the hard part with the original hack. MicroPython makes those sorts of things easy.

This is one of those ideas that’s just brilliant for a hacker with a small flock of independent devices to herd. And because itself is fairly simple and readable, if you need to customize it to do your own bidding, that’s no problem either. Just be sure that when you’re storing your WiFi authentication info, it’s not publicly displayed. ([TURFPTAx], could I log into your home WiFi?)

What’s [TURFPTAx] going to be using this for? We’re guessing it’s going to be deploying code to his awesome Open Muscle sensing rigs. What will we be using it for? Blinky Christmas decorations for the in-laws, now remotely updatable without them having to even learn what a “repo” is.

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BBC Micro:Bit As Handheld Synthesizer

The BBC Micro:bit, while not quite as popular in our community as other microcontroller development boards, has a few quirks that can make it a much more interesting piece of hardware to build a project around than an Arduino. [Turi] took note of these unique features and decided that it was the perfect platform to build a synthesizer on.

The Micro:bit includes two important elements that make this project work: the LED matrix and a gyro sensor. [Turi] built a 5×5 button matrix for inputs and paired each to one of the diodes, which eliminates the problem of false inputs. The gyro sensor is used for detuning, which varies the pitch of any generated sound by a set amount according to the orientation of the device. It also includes a passive low-pass filter to make the sound more pleasant to the ear, especially for younger players of the machine. He’s released the source code on his GitHub page for anyone interested in recreating it.

While this was a one-off project for [Turi], he notes that using MicroPython to program it instead of C led to a lot of unnecessary complications, and the greater control allowed by C would enable some extra features with less hassle. Still, it’s a fun project that really showcases the unique features of this board, much like this tiny Sumo robot we covered over the summer.

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