Ball CVT Drives Robot From A Constant Speed Motor

[James Bruton] is experimenting is a series of interesting mechanical mechanisms, the latest being a CVT transmission system which uses a tilting sphere to get a variable speed output from a constant speed input. Video after the break.

In [James]’ proof of concept RC vehicle, a single powered disc is mounted on top, at 90 degree to the wheels. A rotating sphere makes contact with both the driven disc and the wheel. When the rotation axis of the sphere is at 45° between the disc and the wheel, it provides a one 1:1 transmission ratio. As the axis is tilted, the contact points on the sphere shift, changing the relative circumference at the contact points, and therefore changing the transmission ratio. It can also reverse by tilting the sphere in the opposite direction, and disconnected from the output wheel by aligning it with the hole in the bottom of the sphere. [James]’ simple two-wheel RC car concept quite well, driving around his kitchen with the transmission spheres being tilted by servos.

Thanks to the response time, CVT gearboxes are generally not needed for electric motors, but on internal combustion engines that which run best within a certain RPM range they can be very useful. One possible weak point of a design like this is it’s dependence on friction to transfer torque, which makes it vulnerable to wear and slipping.

This build is a spin-off of his spherical omni-wheels and the robot chassis he developed around them. For another interesting robot mechanism, check out is gyroscope balancing system. Continue reading “Ball CVT Drives Robot From A Constant Speed Motor”

Building A Continuously Variable Transmission With Lego

The first continuously variable transmission fitted to an automobile actually has its roots in the late 19th century, though the technology has only become popular in the last two decades or so. While a relatively complex technology in its modern automotive form, it’s still possible to illustrate the basic principles with everyone’s favourite mechanical learning toy – Lego.

The transmission as built isn’t great at high torque delivery, as the belt tends to slip on the smooth plastic of the cones. Increasing friction would help.

The build consists of a Lego motor driving the transmission’s input shaft, upon which a cone is mounted. A similar cone is mounted on the output shaft, and a rubber belt stretched between the two. With the cones mounted in opposing directions, the gear ratio can be continually varied by changing where upon the cones the belt rides. By riding on the small diameter section of the input cone, the belt correspondingly rides on the large diameter section of the output cone, leading to a slower, high torque output. By sliding the belt to the other end of the cone, the ratios are reversed, leading to high output speed with less torque.

The demonstration works somewhat differently than modern automotive models, but the basic concept is the same. It’s also limited in its torque transfer ability by the coefficient of friction of the plastic Lego parts. Despite this, it’s a quick way to illustrate the mechanisms at play, and where some of the common losses are in such a system. If you prefer your gearboxes of a more classic sequential design, we’ve seen those too, of course. Video after the break.

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Pulleys Within Pulleys Form A Unique Transmission For Robots

After a couple of millennia of fiddling with gears, you’d think there wouldn’t be much new ground to explore in the field of power transmission. And then you see something like an infinitely variable transmission built from nested pulleys, and you realize there’s always room for improvement.

The electric motors generally used in robotics can be extremely efficient, often topping 90% efficiency at high speed and low torque. Slap on a traditional fixed-ratio gearbox, or change the input speed, and efficiency is lost. An infinitely variable transmission, like [Alexander Kernbaum]’s cleverly named Inception Drive, allows the motor to stay at peak efficiency while smoothly changing the gear ratio through a wide range.

The mechanism takes a bit of thought to fully grok, but it basically uses a pair of split pulleys with variable spacing. The input shaft rotates the inner pulley eccentrically, which effectively “walks” a wide V-belt around a fixed outer pulley. This drives the inner pulley at a ratio depending on the spacing of the pulley halves; the transmission can shift smoothly from forward to reverse and even keep itself in neutral. The video below will help you get your head around it.

We’ve seen a couple of innovative transmissions around here lately; some, like this strain-wave gear and this planetary gearbox, are amenable to 3D printing. Looks like the Inception Drive could be printed too. Hackers, start your printers and see what this drive can do.

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