A 7 GHz Signal Analyser Teardown And A Trivial Repair

[Shahriar] of The Signal Path is back with another fascinating video teardown and analysis for your viewing pleasure. (Embedded below.) This time the target is an Agilent E5052A 7 GHz signal Source/Analyser which is an expensive piece of kit not many of us are fortunate enough to have on the bench. This particular unit is reported as faulty, with a signal power measurement that is completely off-the-rails wrong, which leads one to not trust anything the instrument reports.

After digging into the service manual of the related E5052B unit, [Shahriar] notes that the phase noise measurement part of the instrument is totally separate from the power measurement, only connected via some internal resistive power splitters, and this simplifies debugging a lot. But first, a short segue into that first measurement subsystem, because it’s really neat.

Cross-correlating time-gated FFT (TG-FFT) subsystem at the top, dodgy power detector at the bottom

A traditional swept-mode instrument works by mixing the input signal with a locally-sourced low-noise oscillator, which when low-pass filtered, is fed into a power meter or digitizer. This simply put, down-converts the signal to something easy to measure. It then presents power or noise as a function of the local oscillator (LO) frequency, giving us the spectral view we require. All good, but this scheme has a big flaw. The noise of the LO is essentially added to that of the signal, producing a spectral noise floor below which signals cannot be resolved.

The E5052 instrument uses a cunning cross-correlation technique enabling it to measure phase noise levels below that of its own internal signal source. The instrument houses an Oven-Compensated Crystal Oscillator (OCXO) for high stability, in fact, two from two different vendors, one for each LO, and mounted perpendicular to each other. The technique splits the input signal in half with a power splitter, then feeds both halves into identical (apart from the LOs) down-converters, the outputs of which are fed into a DSP via a pair of ADCs. Having identical input signals, but different LOs (with different phase noise spectra) turns the two signals from a correlated pair to an uncorrelated pair, with the effects of chassis vibration and gravity effects also rolled in.

The DSP subtracts the uncorrelated signal from the correlated signal, therefore removing the effect of the individual LO’s effect on the phase noise spectrum. This clever technique results in a phase noise spectrum below that of the LOs themselves, and a good representation of the input signal being measured.

This is what a DC-7GHz resistive power divider looks like. Notice the inductive matching section before each resistor branch.

Handily for [Shahriar] this complex subsystem is totally separate from the dodgy power measurement. This second system is much simpler, being fed with another copy of the input signal, via the main resistive power splitter. This second feed is then split again with a custom power divider, which upon visual inspection of the input SMA connector was clearly defective. It should not wobble. The root cause of the issue was a cold solder joint of a single SMA footprint, which worked loose over time. A little reflow and reassembly and the unit was fit for recalibration, and back into service.

We’ve seen phase noise measurements a few times on these pages, like debugging this STM32 PLL issue.

Continue reading “A 7 GHz Signal Analyser Teardown And A Trivial Repair”

The HP3458A: King Of Multimeters For Three Decades

[Marco] looks at a lot of meters. However, he considers the HP3458A the best even though they were introduced more than 30 years earlier in 1989. Someone donated one to [Marco] but it presented some error messages on startup and exhibited erratic behavior, so he had some repairs to do.

The error codes hinted there were issues with the multislope analog to digital converter and that’s what sets the meter apart, according to [Marco]. The meter has 8.5 digits, so a normal conversion stage won’t cut it.

Continue reading “The HP3458A: King Of Multimeters For Three Decades”

AppCAD Does Transmission Lines

Broadcom and Agilent are perhaps not household words in every household, but among those who work with RF, they are common enough names. An Agilent developer wrote AppCAD to help with common RF design computations and now works for Avago who bought Broadcom. But whoever’s branding is on it, you can download the tool from Broadcom or check out the latest beta version. Then watch [IMASI Guy’s] video below on how to use part of it.

What can it do? According to the website:

  • S-Parameter Analysis and Plotting
  • Active Circuit Bias Design
  • Cascade Noise and IP3 Analysis
  • Transmission Line Analysis
  • Signals and Systems
  • Complex Math Engineering Calculator

Continue reading “AppCAD Does Transmission Lines”

Lightwave Multimeter Teardown

You tend to think of test equipment in fairly basic terms: a multimeter, a power supply, a signal generator, and an oscilloscope. However, there are tons of highly-specialized test equipment for very specific purposes. One of these is the 8163A “lightwave multimeter” and [Signal Path] tears one part for repair in a recent video that you can see below.

If you’ve never heard of a lightwave multimeter, don’t feel bad. The instrument is a measuring system for fiber optics and, depending on the plugins installed, can manage a few tests that you’d usually use an optical power meter, a laser or light source, and some dedicated test jigs to perform. Continue reading “Lightwave Multimeter Teardown”

No More Floppy Drives For This Agilent Scope

When [kiwih] picked up an Agilent 54621A scope, he was amused that it had a floppy disk. At one time, it was high-tech to use a disk to transfer scope data to your computer. Today, not so much. However, on the back was a serial port. Surely it was possible to read data from there. It is, and what results is a nice walkthrough of finding the port’s info and interfacing with it using Python.

Normally, you’d use the included BenchLinkXL software to grab data from the port, but that software is so old it would not run under Windows 10 or Wine. Searching didn’t turn up much on the serial port, but it did locate a manual for a similar Agilent scope. That manual wasn’t too helpful since it assumed you were connecting via a LAN or USB. However, it did make reference to an older model that was also similar and that was the key to finding a manual that did explain the serial port protocol.

The command set looks suspiciously like SCPI — Standard Commands for Programmable Instruments — which is a layer on top of the GPIB protocol. Many scopes speak that language, so that’s not surprising. That also means if you are in the mood to communicate with an SCPI scope, you might find the code useful, even if you don’t use a serial port or have this exact Agilent model.

SCPI has a lot of uses. For example, try talking to your scope. The cheap Rigol and similar scopes usually have SCPI and you can control and read them using the same kind of techniques.

Fixing An Agilent Oscilloscope Power Supply

We should all be so lucky as [Salvaged circuitry], who scored a cheap Agilent oscilloscope from an online auction. Of course, its low price had a reason behind it, the ‘scope didn’t work. At fault was its power supply, the repair of which was documented in the video below.

These ‘scopes have relatively straightforward 12 V power supplies, extremely similar to off-the-shelf parts. The video is an interesting primer in switch-mode power supply repair, as the obvious failure of the filter capacitor and a MOSFET is traced further to the PSU controller chip. We see a new capacitor mounted proud of the board to reduce the risk of heat damage, and then some careful solder rework to save some lifted pads.

The result, a working oscilloscope. Maybe we’d have hacked in another 12 V supply, but given that this is a piece of test equipment perhaps it’s best to stay as close to the original spec as possible. As a parting shot he shows us an equivalent power supply, and promises us a side-by-side test in a future video.

These ‘scopes aren’t as popular in our circles as the cheaper Rigol range, but it’s worth remembering that they also have a budget model.

Continue reading “Fixing An Agilent Oscilloscope Power Supply”

Agilent LCR Meter Teardown

Since 1999, one of the more popular manufacturers of test equipment has been Agilent, the spun-off former instrument division of Hewlett-Packard. From simple multimeters to fully-equipped oscilloscopes, they have been covering every corner of this particular market. And, with the help of [Kerry Wong] and his teardown of an Agilent LCR meter, we can also see that they’ve been making consistent upgrades to their equipment as well.

The particular meter that [Kerry] took apart was an Agilent U1731B, a capable LCR (inductance, capacitance, resistance) meter. He had needed one for himself and noted that while they’re expensive when new, they can be found at a bargain used, but that means dealing with older versions of hardware. For example, his meter uses an 8-bit ADC while the more recent U1733 series uses a 24-bit ADC. The other quality of this meter that [Kerry] made special note of was how densely populated the circuit board is, presumably to save on the design of a VLSI circuit.

While we don’t claim to stump for Agilent in any way, it’s good to know that newer releases of their equipment actually have improved hardware and aren’t just rebadged or firmware-upgraded versions of old hardware with a bigger price tag attached. Also, there wasn’t really any goal that [Kerry] had in mind besides sheer curiosity and a willingness to dive deep into electronics details, as those familiar with his other projects know already.