Credit cards are loaded with security features, but the game of cat and mouse goes on. Nefarious syndicates continue to develop technology to steal data in new and innovate ways. After SparkFun did a teardown on some illicit hardware, they were visited by local law enforcement, who requested their help once more.
[Nick] from SparkFun refers to the device in question as a “shimmer”. It’s intended to be installed inside the chip reader of a credit card terminal, in between the terminal and the user’s credit card. Fabricated on a flexible film PCB, it’s thin enough to glue inside without being obvious even during maintenance.
The investigation begins with identification of the major components on board, followed by attempts to communicate with the device. Unfortunately, the hardware was largely unresponsive, even when connected to a card reader. In an effort to learn more, a schematic was produced. [Nick]’s analysis raised more questions than answers, and the suspicion is that the hardware may have been damaged at some point. However, the basic capabilities of the device are obvious, given the ability of the hardware to interact with a card via its contacts and offload the data through the onboard nRF24L01 radio module.
Thanks to people like [Nick], and earlier work from SparkFun, we all now have a better understanding of the risks when using payment terminals out in the wild. Unfortunately, unless your local gas station is willing to let you spend 20 minutes disassembling their card reader before paying, there’s not a whole lot the individual can do about it. Stay vigilant, and if you’ve got the skinny on a skimmer, drop us a line.
I have a confession to make: ever since the first time I read about them online, I’ve been desperate to find an ATM skimmer in the wild. It’s the same kind of morbid curiosity that keeps us from turning away from a car accident, you don’t want to be witness to anyone getting hurt, but there’s still that desire to see the potential for danger up close. While admittedly my interest is largely selfish (I already know on which shelf I would display it), there would still be tangible benefits to the community should an ATM skimmer cross my path. Obviously I would remove it from the machine and prevent others from falling prey to it, and the inevitable teardown would make interesting content for the good readers of Hackaday. It’s a win for everyone, surely fate should be on my side in this quest.
So when my fingers brushed against that unmistakable knobby feel of 3D printed plastic as I went to insert my card at a local ATM, my heart skipped a beat. After all these years, my dream had come true. Nobody should ever be so excited about potentially being a victim of fraud, but there I was, grinning like an idiot in the farmer’s market. Like any hunter I quickly snapped a picture of my quarry for posterity, and then attempted to free it from the host machine.
But things did not go as expected. I spend most of my free time writing blog posts for Hackaday, so it’s safe to say that physical strength is not an attribute I possess in great quantity, but even still it seemed odd I couldn’t get the skimmer detached. I yanked it in every direction, tried to spin it, did everything short of kicking it; but absolutely no movement. In fact, I noticed that when pulling on the skimmer the whole face plate of the ATM bulged out a bit. I realized this thing wasn’t just glued onto the machine, it must have actually been installed inside of it.
I was heartbroken to leave my prize behind, but at the very least I would be able to alert the responsible party. The contact info for the ATM’s owner was written on the machine, so I emailed them the picture as well as all the relevant information in hopes that they could come check the machine out before anyone got ripped off.
It’s a sad commentary on the state of the world when it becomes a good practice to closely inspect the card reader on every ATM and gas pump for the presence of a skimmer. The trouble is, even physically yanking on the reader may not be enough, as more sophisticated skimmers now reside safely inside the device, sipping on the serial comms output of the reader and caching it for later pickup via Bluetooth. Devilishly clever stuff.
Luckily, there’s an app to detect these devices, and the prudent consumer might take solace when a quick scan of the area reveals no skimmers in operation. But is that enough? After all, how do you know the smartphone app is working? This skimmer scammer scanner — or is that a skimmer scanner scammer? — should help you prove you’re being as safe as possible.
The basic problem that [Ben Kolin] is trying to solve here is: how do you prove a negative? In other words, one could easily write an app with a hard-coded “This Area Certified Zebra-Free” message and market it as a “Zebra Detector,” and 99.999% of the time, it’ll give you the right results. [Ben]’s build provides the zebra, as it were, by posing as an active skimmer to convince the scanner app that a malicious Bluetooth site is nearby. It’s a quick and dirty build with a Nano and a Bluetooth module and a half-dozen lines of code. But it does the trick.
Last week we reported on some work that Sparkfun had done in reverse engineering a type of hardware card skimmer found installed in gasoline pumps incorporating card payment hardware. The device in question was a man-in-the-middle attack, a PIC microcontroller programmed to listen to the serial communications between card reader and pump computer, and then store the result in an EEPROM.
The devices featured a Bluetooth module through which the crooks could harvest the card details remotely, and this in turn provides a handy way to identify them in the wild. If you find a Bluetooth connection at the pump bearing the right identification and with the right password, it can then be fingered as a skimmer by a simple response test. And to make that extra-easy they had written an app, which when we reported on it was available from a GitHub repository.
In a public-spirited move, they are now calling upon the hardware hacker and maker community to come together today, Monday, September 25th, and draw as much attention as possible to these devices in the wild, and with luck to get a few shut down. To that end, they have put a compiled version of the app in the Google Play Store to make it extra-easy to install on your phone, and they are asking for your help. They are asking for people to first read their tutorial linked above, then install the app and take it on the road. Then should any of you find a skimmer, please Tweet about it including your zip code and the #skimmerscanner hashtag. Perhaps someone with a bit of time on their hands might like to take such a feed of skimmer location data and map it.
It would be nice to think that this work might draw attention to the shocking lack of security in gas pumps that facilitates the skimmers, disrupt the finances of a few villains, and even result in some of them getting a free ride in a police car. We can hope, anyway.
We’ve all heard of card skimmers, nefarious devices that steal the identity of credit and debit cards, attached to ATMs and other machines in which unsuspecting consumers use them. Often they have relied on physical extraction of data from the card itself, such as by inserting a magnetic stripe reader in a fake ATM fascia, or by using a hidden camera to catch a picture of both card and user PIN entry.
The folks at Sparkfun write about an approach they received from a law enforcement agency bearing a selection of card skimmer devices that had been installed in gasoline pumps. These didn’t rely on interception of the card itself, instead they sat as a man-in-the-middle attack in the serial line between the card reader unit and the pump electronics. Let that sink in for a minute: a serial line that is readily accessible to anyone with the pump manufacturer’s standard key, carries card data in an unencrypted form. The owner of the skimming device is the criminal, but the company leaving such a wide-open vulnerability should really be joining them in having to answer to authorities.
The device itself is quite simple and well-executed, though it appears that attachment of wires and connectors is a job left to the crook. Some boards boast excellent soldering, while others have joints that are, well, simply criminal. On the board is a PIC microcontroller, a serial Flash chip, and a commodity Bluetooth module. This last component provides the means for the miscreant to harvest their ill-gotten gains, and incidentally a handy means by which compromised pumps can be identified. The Sparkfun people have provided an Android app that interrogates any modules it encounters, and warns of any that return the signature of a skimmer.
It is sad to say that some level of crime is an inevitable feature of the human condition, and therefore it should not be an unreasonable expectation that any entity with which we trust our sensitive data such as a credit card number should take reasonable steps to ensure its security. If a bank transported customer cash through the streets as bundles of $10 bills in open handcarts it is likely that they would get into trouble very quickly, so that the pump manufacturers send card information in the clear over such a readily accessible medium should be a scandal of similar magnitude. That financial institutions prefer to cover up the problem and shift the loss onto the gas stations rather than mandate better device security from the pump manufacturers speaks volumes about their misplaced priorities.
It’s no secret that we’re fans of open source, and open hardware. And we have to applaud companies like SparkFun who also keep their customers in the loop about what’s going on with the business end of the company. For instance, they were recently contacted by a Sheriff’s office and asked for customer information and are sharing the story. One of their products had been used in a series of credit card skimmers and the officers wanted to get purchase information to track down the bad guys. SparkFun doesn’t just give out customer data and so was subsequently served with a subpoena.
The thing is, the document asks for all customer orders shipped to Georgia during a six month period. This seemed like it covered way too many orders, since the majority of them didn’t include the part in question. But the officials were willing to work with the company and narrowed the request to just the 20 or so orders that had the item in them.
It’s an interesting read, and we agree with SparkFun’s point about white hats and black hats. Often when posting about projects here we wonder about the potential to use the knowledge for no-good. But restricting the availability of knowledge (or hardware in this case) because of a few bad-actors is a concept we oppose. It’s like being a hacking super hero, with great skill comes great responsibility.
ATM information theft is nothing new. Neither is the use of skimmers to gain access to the data. But it’s a little surprising just how easy it has become to hack together the devices using audio equipment. The images above are samples of a skimmer for sale from an Eastern-European do-no-good. It is the magnetic stripe sniffer portion of the attack which captures card data as an audio recording. That is later turned into the binary code that was read from the card. We’re just speculating, but that looks an awful lot like the PCB from a pen recorder, something you can pick up for just a couple of bucks.