LibSSH Vuln: You Don’t Need to See my Authentication

Another day, another CVE (Common Vulnerabilities and Exposures). Getting a CVE number assigned to a vulnerability is a stamp of authenticity that you have a real problem on your hands. CVE-2018-10933 is a worst case scenario for libssh.  With a single response, an attacker can completely bypass authentication, giving full access to a system.

Before you panic and yank the power cord on your server, know that libssh is not part of OpenSSH. Your Linux box almost certainly uses OpenSSH as the SSH daemon, and that daemon is not vulnerable to this particular problem. Libssh does show up in a few important places, the most notable is probably Github and their security team already announced their implementation was not vulnerable.

Libssh has released a new version that fixes the problem. Stick around for the details after the break.

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FIDO2 Authentication In All The Colors

Here at Hackaday, we have a soft spot for security dongles. When a new two-factor-authentication dongle is open source, uses USB and NFC, and supports FIDO2, the newest 2FA standard, we take notice. That just happens to be exactly what [Conor Patrick] is funding on Kickstarter.

We’ve looked at [Conor]’s first generation hardware key, and the process of going from design to physical product.  With that track record, the Solo security key promises to be more than the vaporware that plagues crowdfunding services.

Another player, Yubikey, has also recently announced a new product that supports FIDO2 and NFC. While Yubikey has stepped away from their early open source policy, Solo is embracing the open source ethos. The Kickstarter promises the release of both the software and hardware design as fully open, using MIT and CC BY-SA licenses.

For more information, see the blog post detailing the project goals and initial design process.  As always, caveat emptor, but this seems to be a crowdfunding project worth taking a look at.

Hacker Pops Top On NFC Vending Machines

Vending machines used to be a pretty simple affair: you put some coins in, and food or drink that in all likelihood isn’t fit for human consumption comes out. But like everything else today, they are becoming increasingly complex Internet connected devices. Forget fishing around for pocket change; the Coke machine at the mall more often than not has a credit card terminal and a 30 inch touch screen display to better facilitate dispensing cans of chilled sugar water. Of course, increased complexity almost always goes hand in hand with increased vulnerability.

So when [Matteo Pisani] recently came across a vending machine that offered users the ability to pay from an application on their phone, he immediately got to wondering if the system could be compromised. After all, how much thought would be put into the security of a machine that basically sells flavored water? The answer, perhaps not surprisingly, is very little.

The write-up [Matteo] has put together is an outstanding case study in hacking Android applications, from pulling the .apk package off the phone to decompiling it into its principal components with programs like apktool and jadx. He even shows how you can reassemble the package and get it suitable for reinstallation on your device after fiddling around with the source code. If you’ve ever wanted a crash course on taking a peek inside of Android programs, this is a great resource.

By snooping around in the source code, [Matteo] was able to discover not only the location of the encrypted database that serves as the “wallet” for the user, but the routine that generates the encryption key. To cut a long story short, the program simply uses the phone’s IMEI as the key to get into the database. With that in hand, he was able to get into the wallet and give himself a nice stack of “coins” for the next time he hit the vending machines. Given his new-found knowledge of how the system works, he even came up with a separate Android app that allows adding credit to the user’s account on a rooted device.

In the video after the break, [Matteo] demonstrates his program by buying a soda and then bumping his credit back up to buy another. He ends his write-up by saying that he has reported his findings to the company that manufacturers the vending machines, but no word on what (if any) changes they plan on making. At the end of the day, you have to wonder what the cost-befit analysis looks like for a full security overhaul when when you’re only selling sodas and bags of chips.

When he isn’t liberating carbonated beverages from their capitalistic prisons, he’s freeing peripherals from their arbitrary OS limitations. We’re starting to get a good idea about what makes this guy tick.

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Google Discovers Google+ Servers Are Still Running

Google is pulling the plug on their social network, Google+. Users still have the better part of a year to say their goodbyes, but if the fledgling social network was a ghost town before, news of its imminent shutdown isn’t likely to liven the place up. A quick check of the site as of this writing reveals many users are already posting their farewell messages, and while there’s some rallying behind petitions to keep the lights on, the majority realize that once Google has fallen out of love with a project there’s little chance of a reprieve.

To say that this is a surprise would be disingenuous. We’d wager a lot of you already thought it was gone, honestly. It’s no secret that Google’s attempt at a “Facebook Killer” was anything but, and while there was a group of dedicated users to be sure, it never attained anywhere near the success of its competition.

According to a blog post from Google, the network’s anemic user base isn’t the only reason they’ve decided to wind down the service. A previously undisclosed security vulnerability also hastened its demise, a revelation which will particularly sting those who joined for the privacy-first design Google touted. While this fairly transparent postmortem allows us to answer what ended Google’s grand experiment in social networking, there’s still one questions left unanswered. Where are the soon to be orphaned Google+ users supposed to go?

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Malicious Component Found on Server Motherboards Supplied to Numerous Companies

This morning Bloomberg is reporting a bombshell for hardware security. Companies like Amazon and Apple have found a malicious chip on their server motherboards. These are not counterfeit chips. They are not part of the motherboard design. These were added by the factory at the time of manufacture. The chip was placed among other signal conditioning components and is incredibly hard to spot as the nature of these motherboards includes hundreds of minuscule components.

Though Amazon and Apple have denied it, according to Bloomberg, a private security contractor in Canada found the hidden chip on server motherboards. Elemental Technologies, acquired by Amazon in 2015 for its video and graphics processing hardware, subcontracted Supermicro (Super Micro Computer, Inc.) to manufacture their server motherboards in China. It is unknown how many of the company’s products have this type of malicious hardware in them, equipment from Elemental Technologies has been supplied to the likes of government contractors as well as major banks and even reportedly used in the CIA’s drone operations.

How the Hack Works

The attacks work with the small chip being implanted onto the motherboard disguised as signal couplers. It is unclear how the chip gains access to the peripherals such as memory (as reported by Bloomberg) but it is possible it has something to do with accessing the bus. The chip controls some data lines on the motherboard that likely provide an attack vector for the baseboard management controller (BMC).

Hackaday spoke with Joe FitzPatrick (a well known hardware security guru who was quoted in the Bloomberg article). He finds this reported attack as a very believable approach to compromising servers. His take on the BMC is that it’s usually an ARM processor running an ancient version of Linux that has control over the major parts of the server. Any known vulnerability in the BMC would be an attack surface for the custom chip.

Data centers house thousands of individual servers that see no physical interaction from humans once installed. The BMC lets administrators control the servers remotely to reboot malfunctioning equipment among other administrative tasks. If this malicious chip can take control of the BMC, then it can provide remote access to whomever installed the chip. Reported investigations have revealed the hack in action with brief check-in communications from these chips though it’s difficult to say if they had already served their purpose or were being saved for a future date.

What Now?

Adding hardware to a design is fundamentally different than software-based hacking: it leaves physical evidence behind. Bloomberg reports on US government efforts to investigate the supply chain attached to these parts. It is worth noting though that the article doesn’t include any named sources while pointing the finger at China’s People’s Liberation Army.

The solution is not a simple one if servers with this malicious chip were already out in the field. Even if you know a motherboard has the additional component, finding it is not easy. Bloomberg also has unconfirmed reports that the next-generation of this attack places the malicious component between layers of the circuit board. If true, an x-ray would be required to spot the additional part.

A true solution for high-security applications will require specialized means of making sure that the resulting product is not altered in any way. This hack takes things to a whole new level and calls into question how we validate hardware that runs our networks.

Update: We changed the penultimate paragraph to include the word if: “…simple one if servers with…” as it has not been independently verified that servers were actually out in the field and companies have denied Bloomberg’s reporting that they were.

[Note: Image is a generic photo and not the actual hardware]

DIY Rubber Ducky is as Cheap as its Namesake

The “Rubber Ducky” by Hak5 is a very powerful tool that lets the user perform rapid keystroke injection attacks, which is basically a fancy way of saying the device can type fast. Capable of entering text at over 1000 WPM, Mavis Beacon’s got nothing on this $45 gadget. Within just a few seconds of plugging it in, a properly programmed script can do all sorts of damage. Just think of all the havoc that can be caused by an attacker typing in commands on the local machine, and now image they are also the Flash.

But unless you’re a professional pentester, $45 might be a bit more than you’re looking to spend. Luckily for the budget conscious hackers out there, [Tomas C] has posted a guide on using open source software to create a DIY version of Hak5’s tool for $3 a pop. At that cost, you don’t even have to bother recovering the things when you deploy them; just hold on tight to your balaclava and make a run for it.

The hardware side of this hack is the Attiny85-based Digispark, clones of which can be had for as low as $1.50 USD depending on how long your willing to wait on the shipping from China. Even the official ones are only $8, though as of the time of this writing are not currently available. Encapsulating the thing in black shrink tubing prevents it from shorting out, and as an added bonus, gives it that legit hacker look. Of course, it wouldn’t be much of a hack if you could just buy one of these little guys and install the Rubber Ducky firmware on it.

In an effort to make it easier to use, the official Rubber Ducky runs scripts written in a BASIC-like scripting language. [Tomas C] used a tool called duck2spark by [Marcus Mengs], which lets you take a Rubber Ducky script (which have been released by Hak5 as open source) and compile it into a binary for flashing to the Digispark.

Not quite as convenient as just copying the script to the original Ducky’s microSD card, but what do you want for less than 1/10th the original’s price? Like we’ve seen in previous DIY builds inspired by Hak5 products, the trade-off is often cost for ease of use.

[Thanks to Javier for the tip.]

Tesla Opens with Precomputed Key Fob Attack

This clever precomputation attack was developed by a group of researchers at KU Leuven in Belgium. Unlike previous key fob attacks that we’ve covered in the past which have been essentially relay attacks, this hack precomputes a ton of data, looks for a collision in the dataset, and opens the door. Here’s how it works.

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