This Week In Security: IOS Wifi Incantations, Ghosts, And Bad Regex

I hope everyone had a wonderful Thanksgiving last week. My household celebrated by welcoming a 4th member to the family. My daughter was born on Wednesday morning, November 25th. And thus explains what I did last week instead of writing the normal Hackaday column. Never fear, we shall catch up today, and cover the news that’s fit to be noticed.

iOS Zero-click Wifi Attack

[Ian Beer] of Google’s Project Zero brings us the fruit of his lockdown-induced labors, a spectacular iOS attack. The target of this attack is the kernel code that handles AWDL, an Apple WiFi protocol for adhoc mesh networks between devices. The most notable feature that makes use of AWDL is AirDrop, Apple’s device-to-device file sharing system. Because AWDL is a proprietary protocol, the WiFi hardware can’t do any accelerated processing of packets. A few years back, there was an attack against Broadcom firmware that required a second vulnerability to jump from the WiFi chip to the device CPU. Here, because the protocol is all implemented in Apple’s code, no such pivot is necessary.

And as you’ve likely deduced, there was a vulnerability found. AWDL uses Type-Length-Value (TLV) messages for sending management data. For a security researcher, TLVs are particularly interesting because each data type represents a different code path to attack. One of those data types is a list of MAC addresses, with a maximum of 10. The code that handles it allocates a 60 byte buffer, based on that maximum. The problem is that there isn’t a code path to drop incoming TLVs of that type when they exceed 60 bytes. The remainder is written right past the end of the allocated buffer.

There is more fun to be had, getting to a full exploit, but the details are a bit too much to fully dive in to here. It interesting to note that [Ian] ran into a particular problem: His poking at the target code was triggering unexpected kernel panics. He discovered two separate vulnerabilities, both distinct from the vuln he was trying to exploit.

Finally, this exploit requires the target device to have AWDL enabled, and many won’t. But you can use Bluetooth Low Energy advertisements to trick the target device into believing an Airdrop is coming in from a trusted contact. Once the device enables AWDL to verify the request, the attack can proceed. [Ian] reported his findings to Apple way back in 2019, and this vulnerability was patched in March of 2020.

Via Ars Technica.
Continue reading “This Week In Security: IOS Wifi Incantations, Ghosts, And Bad Regex”

Should You Build For Windows, Mac, IOS, Android, Or Linux? Yes!

The holy grail of computer languages is to write code once and have it deploy effortlessly everywhere. Java likes to take credit for the idea, but UCSD P-Code was way before that and you could argue that mainframes had I/O abstraction like Fortran unit numbers even earlier. More modern efforts include Qt, GTK, and other things. Naturally, all of these fall short in some way. Now Google enters the fray with Flutter.

Flutter isn’t new, but in the past, it only handled Android and iOS. Now it can target desktop platforms and can even produce JavaScript. We haven’t played with the system enough to say how successful it is, but you can try it in your browser if you want some first-hand experience.

Continue reading “Should You Build For Windows, Mac, IOS, Android, Or Linux? Yes!”

Pause Your Tunes When It Is Time To Listen Up!

“Sorry. I had music playing. Would you say that again?” If we had a money-unit every time someone tried talking to us while we were wearing headphones, we could afford a super-nice pair. For an Embedded C class, [extremerockets] built Listen Up!, a cutoff switch that pauses your music when someone wants your attention.

The idea was born while sheltering in place with his daughter, who likes loud music, but he does not want to holler to get her attention. Rather than deny her some auditory privacy, Listen Up! samples the ambient noise level, listens for a sustained rise in amplitude, like speech, and sends a pause signal to the phone. Someday, there may be an option to route the microphone’s audio into the headphones, but for now there is a text-to-speech module for verbalizing character strings. It might be a bit jarring to hear a call to dinner in the middle of a guitar riff, but we don’t like missing dinner either, so we’re with [extremerockets] on this one.

We don’t really need lots of money to get fun headphones, and we are not afraid of making our own.

This Week In Security: Exim, Apple Sign-in, Cursed Wallpaper, And Nuclear Secrets

So first off, remember the Unc0ver vulnerability/jailbreak from last week? In the 13.5.1 iOS release, the underlying flaw was fixed, closing the jailbreak. If you intend to jailbreak your iOS device, make sure not to install this update. That said, the normal warning applies: Be very careful about running out-of-date software.

Apple Sign In

An exploit in Apple’s web authentication protocol was fixed in the past week . Sign In With Apple is similar to OAuth, and allows using an Apple account to sign in to other sites and services. Under the hood, a JSON Web Token (JWT) gets generated and passed around, in order to confirm the user’s identity. In theory, this scheme even allows authentication without disclosing the user’s email address.

So what could go wrong? Apparently a simple request for a JWT that’s signed with Apple’s public key will automatically be approved. Yeah, it was that bad. Any account linked to an Apple ID could be trivially compromised. It was fixed this past week, after being found and reported by [Bhavuk Jain]. Continue reading “This Week In Security: Exim, Apple Sign-in, Cursed Wallpaper, And Nuclear Secrets”

This Week In Security: Leaking Partial Bits, Apple News, And Overzealous Contact Tracing

Researchers at the NCCGroup have been working on a 5-part explanation of a Windows kernel vulnerability, targeting the Kernel Transaction Manager (KTM). The vulnerability, CVE-2018-8611, is a local privilege escalation bug. There doesn’t seem to be a way to exploit this remotely, but it is an interesting bug, and NCCGroup’s work on it is outstanding.

They start with a bit of background on what the KTM is, and why one might want to use it. Next is a handy guide to reverse engineering Microsoft patches. From there, they describe the race condition and how to actually exploit it. They cover a wide swath in the series, so go check it out.

Left4Dead 2

Just a reminder that bugs show up where you least expect them, [Hunter Stanton] shares his story of finding a code execution bug in the popular Valve game, Left4Dead 2. Since the game’s code isn’t available to look at, he decided to go the route of fuzzing. The specific approach he took was to fuzz the navigation mesh data, part of the data contained in each game map. Letting the Basic Fuzzing Framework (BFF) run for three days turned up a few possible crashes, and the most promising turned out to have code execution potential. [Hunter] submitted the find through Valve’s HackerOne bug bounty program, and landed a cool $10k bounty for his trouble.

While it isn’t directly an RCE, [Hunter] does point out that malicious mesh data could be distributed with downloadable maps on the Steam workshop. Alternatively, it should be possible to set up a fake game server that distributes the trapped map. Continue reading “This Week In Security: Leaking Partial Bits, Apple News, And Overzealous Contact Tracing”

This Week In Security: Nintendo Accounts, Pernicious Android Malware, And An IOS 0-day

A rash of Nintendo account compromises has made the news over the last week. Nintendo’s official response was that they were investigating, and recommended everyone enabled two factor authentication on their accounts.

[Dan Goodin] over at Ars Technica has a canny guess: The compromised accounts were each linked to an old Nintendo Network ID (NNID). This is essentially a legacy Nintendo account — one made in the Wii U and 3DS era. Since they’re linked, access via the NNID exposes the entire account. Resetting the primary account password doesn’t change the NNID credentials, but turning on two factor authentication does seem to close the loophole. There hasn’t yet been official confirmation that NNIDs are responsible, but it seems to fit the situation. It’s an interesting problem, where a legacy account can lead to further compromise.

Just Can’t Lose You: xHelper

xHelper, an Android malware, just won’t say goodbye. xHelper looks like a cleaner application, but once installed it begins rather stubbornly installing itself via the Triada trojan. The process begins with rooting the phone, and then remounting /system as writable. Binaries are installed and startup scripts are tampered with, and then the mount command itself is compromised, preventing a user from following the same steps to remove the malware. Additionally, if the device has previously been rooted, the superuser binary is removed. This combination of techniques means that the infection will survive a factory reset. The only way to remove xHelper is to flash a clean Android image, fully wiping /system in the process. Continue reading “This Week In Security: Nintendo Accounts, Pernicious Android Malware, And An IOS 0-day”

GitHub On The Go

It is hard to find anyone that does any kind of software development that doesn’t have some interaction with GitHub. Even if you don’t host your own projects there, there are so many things to study and borrow on the site, that it is nearly ubiquitous. However, when you’ve needed GitHub on the run, you’ve probably had to turn to your phone browser and had a reduced experience. GitHub for Mobile is now out of beta and promises a more fluid phone-based GitHub experience.

In addition to working with tasks and issues, you can also review and merge pull requests. The app sends your phone notifications, too, which can be handy. As you might expect, you can get the app for Android or iPhone in the respective stores.

Continue reading “GitHub On The Go”