Using Valgrind To Track Down Known And Unknown Bugs In Your Code

We all know what bugs in code are. We don’t like them when they are in programs we use, and they’re even worse when they are in code which we have written. Clearly, the best code is bug-free, but how do we get there?

This isn’t a new question, of course, just one that has become ever more important as the total number of lines of code (LoC) that run modern day society keeps increasing and which is affecting even hobbyists more and more often now that everything has a microcontroller inside.

Although many of us know the smug satisfaction of watching a full row of green result markers light up across the board after running the unit tests for a project, the painful reality is that you don’t know whether the code really is functionally correct until it runs in an environment that is akin to the production environment.  Yet how can one test an application in this situation?

This is where tools like those contained in the Valgrind suite come into play, allowing us to profile, analyze and otherwise nitpick every single opcode and memory read or write. Let’s take a look, shall we?

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Debugging Electronics: To Know Why It Didn’t Work, First Find What It Is Actually Doing

Congratulations, you have just finished assembling your electronics project. After checking for obvious problems you apply power and… it didn’t do what you wanted. They almost never work on the first try, and thus we step into the world of electronics debugging with Daniel Samarin as our guide at Hackaday Superconference 2019. The newly published talk video embedded below.

Beginners venturing just beyond blinking LEDs and premade kits would benefit the most from information here, but there are tidbits useful for more experienced veterans as well. The emphasis is on understanding what is actually happening inside the circuit, which explains the title of the talk: Debugging Electronics: You Can’t Handle the Ground Truth! So we can compare observed behavior against designed intent. Without an accurate understanding, any attempted fix is doomed to failure.

To be come really good at this, you need to embrace the tools that are often found on a well stocked electronics bench. Daniel dives into the tricks of the trade that transcend printf and blinking LED to form a plan to approach any debugging task.

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SOICbite: A Program/Debug Connector For An SOIC Test Clip

The problem is well-known: programming and debug headers consume valuable board space and the connectors cost money. Especially troublesome are the ubiquitous 100-mil pin headers, not because they’re expensive, but because they’re huge, especially along the z-axis. If you’re building miniature devices, these things can take up a ridiculous amount of space. With some clever thinking, [Simon Merrett] has found a way to re-use something many of us already have — an SOIC-8 test clip — to connect to a special footprint on the PCB without requiring another connector. He calls the system SOICbite.

The SOIC clip attaches to a footprint consisting of eight pads, four on each side of the PCB, plus five non-plated-through holes, which serve to anchor the clip in place. The idea of mating a PCB footprint directly with a removable connector isn’t entirely new — Tag Connect has been doing this for a while, but the connectors are expensive and single-sourced. On the other hand, SOIC test clips of varying quality are available from a number of vendors, including dirt-cheap deals on your favorite websites. The one disadvantage we can see is that the SOICbite footprint must be at the edge of the PCB to properly mate with the clip. The savings in space and cost may well make up for this, however.

[Simon] has made his KiCAD footprint available in a GitHub repo, and has offered to host footprints for any other CAD package there as well. So, fire up your preferred tool and draw one up for him to get these things widely adopted, because we think this is a great idea.

For the commercial alternative, check out our coverage of Tag Connect back in 2014.

 

Squash Your ESP-8266 Bugs With ESP-gdbstub

We hope we’re not insulting you by suggesting this, but it’s possible that even the best among us may be faced with bugs in our embedded code from time to time. And while we’re great fans of printf debugging over the serial port, and its high-speed equivalent — flipping a GPIO pin — there’s a time when your bug is so deep that having a real debugger is the best way to dig it out.

[slaff] has been doing some great work documenting C/C++ programming on the ESP-8266, mostly using Eclipse and some of the Arduino libraries. In the fourth part of his series of posts, he walks through using a couple debugger options for the ESP. What makes this all work is the ESP-gdbstub code from Espressif themselves. gdbstub looks great — it works both with the standard SDK as well as with FreeRTOS, so you can debug your ESP-8266 code whether it’s in an OS or on the bare metal. And all this just using the standard serial connection that’s used for programming.

Now, this still may not help with timing-related bugs. ESP-gdbstub uses the serial port, after all. But having the ability to set breakpoints and interactively inspect what’s going on in the chip’s memory is priceless, and doing so with no extra hardware connections is brilliant.

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Serial Monitor Without A PC

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A serial monitor is an easy way to debug your projects. As we step through code, it’s nice to see a “Hey! I’m working, moving to next thing!” across the monitor, and not so nice to see nothing – the result of a bug that needs debugging. This has always meant needing a PC loaded with your favorite serial terminal program close at hand.

Most of the time this is not an issue, because the PC is used to compile the code and program the project at hand. But what if you’re in the field, with a mission of fixing a headless system, and in need a serial monitor? Why lug around your PC when you can make your own External Serial Monitor!

[ARPix] built this fully functional serial monitor based on an Atmega328 and a 102 x 64 LCD display. While it doesn’t have a keyboard port like this microcontroller based serial terminal, tact switches allow access to the user interface to start and stop the reading and set the baud rate. The Atmega328 has 2K of SRAM, which is needed for the project. Apparently, 1K was not enough to handle all the data. All code, schematics and a very well done parts layout are available, making this sure to be your next weekend project!

 

 

 

How-to: The Bus Pirate, Universal Serial Interface

UPDATE: New firmware with JTAG and more

We’re always excited to get a new chip or SIM card to interface, but our enthusiasm is often dampened by the prototyping process. Interfacing any chip usually means breadboarding a circuit, writing code, and hauling out the programmer; maybe even a prototyping PCB.

A few years ago we built the first ‘Bus Pirate’, a universal bus interface that talks to most chips from a PC serial terminal. Several standard serial protocols are supported at 3.3-5volts, including I2C, SPI, and asynchronous serial. Additional ‘raw’ 2- and 3- wire libraries can interface almost any proprietary serial protocols. Since this has been such a useful tool for us, we cleaned up the code, documented the design, and released it here with specs, schematic, and source code.

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