Bluetooth Vulnerability Affects All Major OS

Security researchers from Armis Labs recently published a whitepaper unveiling eight critical 0-day Bluetooth-related vulnerabilities, affecting Linux, Windows, Android and iOS operating systems. These vulnerabilities alone or combined can lead to privileged code execution on a target device. The only requirement is: Bluetooth turned on. No user interaction is necessary to successfully exploit the flaws, the attacker does not need to pair with a target device nor the target device must be paired with some other device.

The research paper, dubbed BlueBorne (what’s a vulnerability, or a bunch, without a cool name nowadays?), details each vulnerability and how it was exploited. BlueBorne is estimated to affect over five billion devices. Some vendors, like Microsoft, have already issued a patch while others, like Samsung, remain silent. Despite the patches, some devices will never receive a BlueBorne patch since they are outside of their support window. Armis estimates this accounts for around 40% of all Bluetooth enabled devices.

A self-replicating worm that would spread and hop from a device to other nearby devices with Bluetooth turned on was mentioned by the researchers as something that could be done with some more work. That immediately reminds us of the BroadPwn vulnerability, in which the researchers implemented what is most likely the first WiFi only worm. Although it is definitely a fun security exercise to code such worm, it’s really a bad, bad idea… Right?…

So who’s affected?

Continue reading “Bluetooth Vulnerability Affects All Major OS”

Analysing 3D Printer Songs For Hacks

3D printers have become indispensable in industry sectors such as biomedical and manufacturing, and are deployed as what is termed as a 3D print farm. They help reduce production costs as well as time-to-market. However, a hacker with access to these manufacturing banks can introduce defects such as microfractures and holes that are intended to compromise the quality of the printed component.

Researchers at the Rutgers University-New Brunswick and Georgia Institute of Technology have published a study on cyber physical attacks and their detection techniques. By monitoring the movement of the extruder using sensors, monitored sounds made by the printer via microphones and finally using structural imaging, they were able to audit the printing process.

A lot of studies have popped up in the last year or so including papers discussing remote data exfiltration on Makerbots that talk about the type of defects introduced. In a paper by [Belikovetsky, S. et al] titled ‘dr0wned‘, such an attack was documented which allowed a compromised 3D printed propeller to crash a UAV. In a follow-up paper, they demonstrated Digital Audio Signing to thwart Cyber-physical attacks. Check out the video below.

In this new study, the attack is identified by using not only the sound of the stepper motors but also the movement of the extruder. After the part has been manufactured, a CT scan ensures the integrity of the part thereby completing the audit.

Disconnected printers and private networks may be the way to go however automation requires connectivity and is the foundation for a lot of online 3D printing services. The universe of Skynet and Terminators may not be far-fetched either if you consider ambitious projects such as this 3D printed BLDC motor. For now, learn to listen to your 3D printer’s song. She may be telling you a story you should hear.

Thanks for the tip [Qes] Continue reading “Analysing 3D Printer Songs For Hacks”

The Amazon Echo As A Listening Device

It is an inevitability that following swiftly on the heels of the release of a new device there will be an announcement of its rooting, reverse engineering, or other revealing of its hackability. Now the device in question is the Amazon Echo, as MWR Labs announce their work in persuading an Echo to yield the live audio from the microphone and turn the voice assistant device into a covert listening device.

The work hinges on a previous discovery and reverse engineering (PDF) of Amazon’s debug connector on the base of the Echo, which exposes both an SD card interface and a serial terminal. Following that work, they were able to gain root access to the device, analyze the structure of the audio buffers and how the different Echo processes use them, and run Amazon’s own “shmbuf_tool” application to pipe raw audio data to a network stream. Astoundingly this could be done without compromising the normal operation of the device.

It should be stressed, that this is an exploit that requires physical access to the device and a bit of knowledge to perform. But it’s not inconceivable that it could be made into a near-automated process requiring only a device with a set of pogo pins to be mated with an Echo that has had its cover quickly removed.

That said, inevitably there will be enough unused Echos floating around before too long that their rootability will make them useful to people in our community. We look forward to what interesting projects people come up with using rooted Echos.

This isn’t the first time we’ve covered the use of an Echo as a listening device.

Via Hacker News.

Amazon Echo image: FASTILY [CC BY-SA 4.0].

The Dark Arts – Remote File Inclusion

In the waning hours of 2010, a hacking group known as Lulzsec ran rampant across the Internet, leaving a path of compromised servers, a trail of defaced home pages, leaked emails, and login information in their wake. They were eventually busted via human error, and the leader of the group becoming an FBI informant. This handful of relatively young hackers had made a huge mess of things. After the digital dust had settled – researches, journalists, and coders began to dissect just how these seemingly harmless group of kids were able to harness so much power and control over the World Wide Web. What they found was not only eye-opening to web masters and coders, but shined a light on just how vulnerable all of our data was for everyone to see. It ushered in an era of renewed focus on security and how to write secure code.

In this Dark Arts series, we have taken a close look at the primary techniques the Luzsec hackers used to gain illegal access to servers. We’ve covered two them – SQL injection (SQLi) and cross-site scripting (XSS). In this article, we’ll go over the final technique called remote file inclusion (RFI).

DISCLAIMER: Fortunately, the surge of security-minded coding practices after the fall of Lulzsec has (for the most part) removed these vulnerabilities from the Internet as a whole. These techniques are very dated and will not work on any server that is maintained and/or behind a decent firewall, and your IP will probably get flagged and logged for trying them out. But feel free to set up a server at home and play around. Continue reading “The Dark Arts – Remote File Inclusion”

Broadpwn – All Your Mobiles are Belong to Us

Researchers from Exodus Intel recently published details on a flaw that exists on several Broadcom WiFi chipsets. It’s estimated to affect nearly 1 Billion devices, from Android to iPhone. Just to name a few in the top list:

  • Samsung Galaxy from S3 through S8, inclusive
  • All Samsung Notes3. Nexus 5, 6, 6X and 6P
  • All iPhones after iPhone 5

So how did this happen? And how does a bug affect so many different devices?

A smart phone nowadays is a very complicated mesh of interconnected chips. Besides the main processor, there are several other secondary processors handling specialized tasks which would otherwise clog up the main CPU. One of those is the WiFi chipset, which is responsible for WiFi radio communications — handling the PHY, MAC and MLME layers. When all the processing is complete, the radio chipset hands data packets over the kernel driver, which runs on the main CPU. This means that the radio chipset itself has to have some considerable data processing power to handle all this work. Alas, with great power comes great responsibility.

Continue reading “Broadpwn – All Your Mobiles are Belong to Us”

Smart Gun Beaten by Dumb Magnets

[Plore], a hacker with an interest in safe cracking, read a vehemently anti-smart-gun thread in 2015. With the words “Could you imagine what the guys at DEF CON could do with this?” [Plore] knew what he had to do: hack some smart guns. Watch the video below the break.

Armed with the Armatix IP1, [Plore] started with one of the oldest tricks in the book: an RF relay attack. The Armatix IP1 is designed to fire only when a corresponding watch is nearby, indicating that a trusted individual is the one holding the gun. However, by using a custom-built $20 amplifier to extend the range of the watch, [Plore] is able to fire the gun more than ten feet away, which is more than enough distance to be dangerous and certainly more than the few inches the manufacturers intended.

Not stopping there, [Plore] went to the other extreme, creating what he calls an “electromagnetic compatibility tester” (in other words, a jammer) that jams the signal from the watch, effectively preventing a legitimate gun owner from firing their gun at 10 to 20 feet!

Not one to call it quits, [Plore] realised that the gun prevented illicit firing with a simple metal pin which it moved out of the way once it sensed the watch nearby. However, this metal just happened to be ferrous, and you know what that means: [Plore], with the help of some strong magnets, was able to move the pin without any electrical trickery.

Now, we’ve already covered the many hurdles that smart guns face, and this specific investigation of the state of smart gun technology doesn’t make the picture look any brighter. We’re aware that hindsight is always 20/20, so let us know in the comments how you would fix the problems with the Armatix IP1.
Continue reading “Smart Gun Beaten by Dumb Magnets”

Sneak Thieves Beware: A Pi Watcheth

Ever have that strange feeling that somebody is breaking into your workshop? Well, Hackaday.io user [Kenny] has whipped up a tutorial on how to scratch that itch by turning a spare Raspberry Pi you may have kicking around into a security camera system that notifies you at a moment’s notice.

The system works like this: a Raspberry Pi 3 and connected camera module remain vigilant, constantly scanning for motion and recording video. If motion is detected, it immediately snaps and sends a picture to the user’s mobile via PushBullet, then begins recording video. If there is still movement after a few seconds, the process repeats until the area is once again devoid of motion. This also permits a two-way communication with your Pi security system, so you can check in on the live feed whenever you feel the urge.

To get this working for you — assuming that your Pi has been recently updated — setup requires setting up a PushBullet account as well as installing it on your mobile and  linking it with an API. For your Pi, you can go ahead with setting up some Python PushBullet libraries, installing FFmpeg, Pi Camera Notifier, and others. Or, install the ready-to-go image [Kenny] has prepared. He gets into the nitty-gritty of the code in his guide, so check that out or watch the tutorial video after the break.

Continue reading “Sneak Thieves Beware: A Pi Watcheth”