Even the most punctual among us are content to synchronize their clocks to external time sources like navigation satellite constellations, network time servers, frequency-controlled AC mains, or signals broadcast by radio stations such as WWV, CHU, and DFC77 — but not [zaphod]. After building a couple of more traditional clocks over the years, he set his sights on making a completely isolated digital clock that doesn’t rely on external synchronization (well, except to initialize the time at first power-up).
The accuracy goal he set for himself was that of a Casio F-91W wristwatch, which is specified to maintain +/- 30 seconds per month (about 12 ppm). At the heart of the design is an oven-controlled crystal oscillator whose stability is in the single-digits parts-per-billion.
The counter chain that accumulates the time is implemented in an FPGA — admittedly overkill, but [zaphod] wanted to learn FPGA programming for this project as well. An ATmega328 drives the display and does other bookkeeping tasks. The whole design is partitioned into three PCBs which fit inside a custom 3D-printed case.
[zaphod] does a thorough job documenting his build, including the bugs and failures along the way. We like the honest summary he wrote at the project’s conclusion, noting things that could be improved or should have been done differently. Be sure to check out the GitHub repository, where all the source code and PCB design files are posted. How accurate is your wristwatch, if you even wear one anymore?